Glossary of Terms Applicable to Our Industry

Animal By-Product:  Animals by-products are products from the meat production chain which do not end up on the consumer’s plate. These by-products vary from country to country depending on the eating habits of different cultures.

Animal Processing Industry

Slaughter facility

Rendering Plant and Rendering Equipment:

Poultry Processing Wastewater Treatment

Multi-Stage DAF for FOG Removal

DAF:   Dissolved air flotation (DAF) is a water treatment process that clarifies wastewaters (or other waters) by the removal of suspended matter such as oil or solids.

DAF Recovery Efficiency

DAF Skim

FOG:   FOG is Fats, Oils and Grease

FOG Loading

BOD:  Biochemical Oxygen Demand

FOG Removal Process: The process in which FOG is removed from wastewater.

Fat, Oil & Grease Removal Process:  The process in which Fat, Oil & Grease is removed from wastewater.

TSS:  Total Suspended Solids include all particles suspended in water which will not pass through a filter.

TSS Removal:  Removal of Total suspended solids in waste water treatment.

Emulsion:  An emulsion is a mixture of two or more liquids that are normally unmixable or un-blendable.

Emulsion Removal: The process in which the removal of emulsified oils from water.

Chemical Treatment

Effluent:  Effluent is the outgoing of water

Influent:  Flowing into

Tri-Canter:  Three phase separation

De-boning Process: The removal of meat from the bone.


Solid-liquid separation

Belt Press

Mass Balance Equation:  A mass balance, also called a material balance, is an application of conservation of mass to the analysis of physical systems. By accounting for material entering and leaving a system, mass flows can be identified which might have been unknown, or difficult to measure without this technique. The exact conservation law used in the analysis of the system depends on the context of the problem, but all revolve around mass conservation, i.e. that matter cannot disappear or be created spontaneously. Therefore, mass balances are used widely in engineering and environmental analyses. For example, mass balance theory is used to design chemical reactors, to analyze alternative processes to produce chemicals, as well as to model pollution dispersion and other processes of physical systems. Closely related and complementary analysis techniques include the population balance, energy balance and the somewhat more complex entropy balance. These techniques are required for thorough design and analysis of systems such as the refrigeration cycle.

In environmental monitoring the term budget calculations is used to describe mass balance equations where they are used to evaluate the monitoring data (comparing input and output, etc.) In biology the dynamic energy budget theory for metabolic organization makes explicit use of mass and energy balances.

White Grease:

GPD:  Gallon Per Day

COD: Chemical Oxygen Demand

USDA:  United Stated Department of Agriculture

Lime Flushing and Lime Handling Systems:  Lime is one of the most widely-used chemicals for wastewater treatment. It is marketed either as quick-lime (CaO) or hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2). Lime is used in wastewater treatment for chemical coagulation of solids, phosphate precipitation, pH adjustment, and chemical stabilization of sludge.

Polymer:   In wastewater treatment processes, polymers are used to coagulate suspended solids and produce large curds of solid materials (FLOC).

FLOC: Flocculants and Coagulants are formulated to assist in the solids and liquid separation of suspended particles in solution.

Coagulation-Flocculation: is a chemical water treatment technique typically applied prior to sedimentation and filtration.

Substances used in Flocculation: There are various chemical and natural substances that are used in removing unwanted particles through flocculation. Common chemicals/flocculants used for initiating flocculation process are:

  • Alum
  • Aluminium chlorohydrate
  • Aluminium sulfate
  • Calcium oxide
  • Calcium hydroxide
  • Iron(II) sulfate
  • Iron(III) chloride
  • Polyacrylamide
  • PolyDADMAC
  • Sodium aluminate
  • Sodium silicate.

Sludge Treatment: Sludge accumulated in a wastewater treatment process must be treated and disposed of in a safe and effective manner.  It is generally done by employing processes like Stabilization, Composting, De-watering, Sludge Drying and Anaerobic Digestion.

Lipids – Insoluble Fats, Oils, Grease (FOG) and waxes

Chemical Precipitation:   Chemical precipitation is a widely used, proven technology for the removal of metals and other inorganics, suspended solids, fats, greases and some other organic substances (including organophosphates) from wastewater. Generally speaking, precipitation is a method of causing contaminates that are either dissolved or suspended in solution to settle out of the solution as a solid precipitate, which can then be filtered, centrifuged, or otherwise separated from the liquid portion.

Anaerobic/Aerobic Treatment:  This is basically a biologically developed wastewater treatment technology used to lower the organic load of organic compounds. In aerobic systems, the water is aerated with compressed air to providing oxygen to the effluent to be treated.

VOC:  Volatile Organic Compounds

Sources of Industrial Waste Water:  The agricultural sector produces a large volume of wastewater each year.

Food Industry Wastewater:  Wastewater generated in the food industry contains high concentrations of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and suspended solids (SS).  Animal slaughter and processing facilities generate waste water with large amounts of particulate matter (PM) and dissolved organics.

PM:  Particulate matter.

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